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实验室专用仪器,尘埃粒子计数器,粉尘测定仪,粉体综合特性测试仪,透射比测定仪,氦...

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恒奥德仪器显微镜结构及成像原理
发布时间:2018-10-19        浏览次数:4659        返回列表
                                               恒奥德仪器显微镜结构及成像原理
 

发明过程

XIANWEIJINGSHIRENLEI20SHIJI*WEIDADEFAMINGWUZHIYI。ZAITAFAMINGCHULAIZHIQIAN,RENLEIGUANYUZHOUWEISHIJIEDEGUANNIANJUXIANZAIYONGROUYAN,HUOZHEKAOSHOUCHITOUJINGBANGZHUROUYANSUOKANDAODEDONGXI。

XIANWEIJINGBAYIGEQUANXINDESHIJIEZHANXIANZAIRENLEIDESHIYELI,RENMEN**CIKANDAOLESHUYIBAIJIDE"XINDE"WEIXIAODONGWUHEZHIWU,YIJICONGRENTIDAOZHIWUXIANWEIDENGGEZHONGDONGXIDENEIBUGOUZAO。XIANWEIJINGHAIYOUZHUYUKEXUEJIAFAXIANXINWUZHONG,YOUZHUYUYISHENGZHILIAOJIBING。

*ZAODEXIANWEIJINGSHI16SHIJIMOQIZAIHELANZHIZAOCHULAIDE。FAMINGZHESHIYASI·ZHANSEN,HELANYANJINGSHANG,HUOZHELINGYIWEIHELANKEXUEJIAHANSI·LIPOXI,TAMENYONGLIANGPIANTOUJINGZHIZUOLEJIANYIDEXIANWEIJING,DANBINGMEIYOUYONGZHEIXIEYIQIZUOGUORENHEZHONGYAODEGUANCHA。

HOULAIYOULIANGGERENKAISHIZAIKEXUESHANGSHIYONGXIANWEIJING。**GESHIYIDALIKEXUEJIAJIALILVE。TATONGGUOXIANWEIJINGGUANCHADAOYIZHONGKUNCHONGHOU,**CIDUITADEFUYANJINXINGLEMIAOSHU。DIERGESHIHELANYAMAZHIPINSHANGRENLIEWENHUKE(1632NIAN-1723NIAN),TAZIJIXUEHUILEMOZHITOUJING。TA**CIMIAOSHULEXUDUOROUYANSUOKANBUJIANDEWEIXIAOZHIWUHEDONGWU。

1931NIAN,ENSITE·LUSIKATONGGUOYANZHIDIANZIXIANWEIJING,SHISHENGWUXUEFASHENGLEYICHANGGEMING。ZHEISHIDEKEXUEJIANENGGUANCHADAOXIANGBAIWANFENZHIYIHAOMINEIYANGXIAODEWUTI。1986NIANTABEISHOUYUNUOBEIERJIANG。

显微镜结构

GUANGXUEXIANWEIJINGYOUMUJING,WUJING,CUZHUNJIAOLUOXUAN,XIZHUNJIAOLUOXUAN,YAPIANJIA,TONGGUANGKONG,ZHEGUANGQI,ZHUANHUANQI,FANGUANGJING,ZAIWUTAI,JINGBEI,JINGTONG,JINGZUO,JUGUANGQI,GUANGLANZUCHENG。

显微镜分类

XIANWEIJINGYIXIANWEIYUANLIJINXINGFENLEIKEFENWEIPIANGUANGXIANWEIJING、GUANGXUEXIANWEIJINGYUDIANZIXIANWEIJINGHESHUMAXIANWEIJING。

PIANGUANGXIANWEIJING(Polarizing microscope)SHIYONGYUYANJIUSUOWEITOUMINGYUBUTOUMINGGEXIANGYIXINGCAILIAODEYIZHONGXIANWEIJING,ZAIDIZHIXUEDENGLIGONGKEZHUANYEZHONGYOUZHONGYAOYINGYONG。FANJUYOUSHUANGZHESHEDEWUZHI,ZAIPIANGUANGXIANWEIJINGXIAJIUNENGFENBIANDEQINGCHU,DANGRANZHEIXIEWUZHIYEKEYONGRANSEFALAIJINXINGGUANCHA,DANYOUXIEZEBUKEYONG,ERBIXULIYONGPIANGUANGXIANWEIJING。FANSHEPIANGUANGXIANWEIJINGSHILIYONGGUANGDEPIANZHENTEXINGDUIJUYOUSHUANGZHESHEXINGWUZHIJINXINGYANJIUJIANDINGDEBIBEIYIQI, KEGONGGUANGDAYONGHUZUODANPIANGUANGGUANCHA,ZHENGJIAOPIANGUANGGUANCHA,ZHUIGUANGGUANCHA。

折叠光学显微镜

TONGCHANGJIEYOUGUANGXUEBUFEN、ZHAOMINGBUFENHEJIXIEBUFENZUCHENG。WUYIGUANGXUEBUFENSHI*WEIGUANJIANDE,TAYOUMUJINGHEWUJINGZUCHENG。ZAOYU1590NIAN,HELANHEYIDALIDEYANJINGZHIZAOZHEYIJINGZAOCHULEISIXIANWEIJINGDEFANGDAYIQI。GUANGXUEXIANWEIJINGDEZHONGLEIHENDUO,ZHUYAOYOUMINGSHIYEXIANWEIJING(PUTONGGUANGXUEXIANWEIJING)、ANSHIYEXIANWEIJING、YINGGUANGXIANWEIJING、XIANGCHAXIANWEIJING、JIGUANGSAOMIAOGONGJUJIAOXIANWEIJING、PIANGUANGXIANWEIJING、WEIFENGANSHECHAXIANWEIJING、DAOZHIXIANWEIJING。

折叠电子显微镜

折叠便携式显微镜

便携式显微镜,主要是近几年发展出来的数码显微镜与视频显微镜系列的延伸。和传统光学放大不同,手持式显微镜都是数码放大,其一般追求便携,小巧而精致,便于携带;且有的手持式显微镜有自己的屏幕,可脱离电脑主机独立成像,操作方便,还可集成一些数码功能,如支持拍照,录像,或图像对比,测量等功能。

SHUMAYEJINGXIANWEIJING,*ZAOSHIYOUBOYUGONGSIYANFASHENGCHANDE,GAIXIANWEIJINGBAOLIULEGUANGXUEXIANWEIJINGDEQINGXI,HUIJILESHUMAXIANWEIJINGDEQIANGDATUOZHAN、SHIPINXIANWEIJINGDEZHIGUANXIANSHIHEBIANXIESHIXIANWEIJINGDEJIANJIEFANGBIANDENGYOUDIAN。

扫描隧道显微镜

SAOMIAOSUIDAOXIANWEIJINGYICHENGWEI"SAOMIAOCHUANSUISHIXIANWEIJING"、"SUIDAOSAOMIAOXIANWEIJING",SHIYIZHONGLIYONGLIANGZILILUNZHONGDESUIDAOXIAOYINGTANCEWUZHIBIAOMIANJIEGOUDEYIQI。TAYU1981NIANYOUGEERDE·BINNING(G.Binning)JIHAIYINLIXI·LUOLEIER(H.Rohrer)ZAIIBMWEIYURUISHISULISHIDESULISHISHIYANSHIFAMING,LIANGWEIFAMINGZHEYINCIYUENSITE·LUSIKAFENXIANGLE1986NIANNUOBEIERWULIXUEJIANG。

TAZUOWEIYIZHONGSAOMIAOTANZHENXIANWEISHUGONGJU,SAOMIAOSUIDAOXIANWEIJINGKEYIRANGKEXUEJIAGUANCHAHEDINGWEIDANGEYUANZI,TAJUYOUBITADETONGLEIYUANZILIXIANWEIJINGGENGJIAGAODEFENBIANLV。CIWAI,SAOMIAOSUIDAOXIANWEIJINGZAIDIWENXIA(4K)KEYILIYONGTANZHENJIANDUANJINGQUECAOZONGYUANZI,YINCITAZAINAMIKEJIJISHIZHONGYAODECELIANGGONGJUYOUSHIJIAGONGGONGJU。

STMSHIRENLEI**CINENGGOUSHISHIDIGUANCHADANGEYUANZIZAIWUZHIBIAOMIANDEPAILIEZHUANGTAIHEYUBIAOMIANDIANZIXINGWEIYOUGUANDEWUHUAXINGZHI,ZAIBIAOMIANKEXUE、CAILIAOKEXUE、SHENGMINGKEXUEDENGLINGYUDEYANJIUZHONGYOUZHEZHONGDADEYIYIHEGUANGFANDEYINGYONGQIANJING,BEIGUOJIKEXUEJIEGONGRENWEI20SHIJI80NIANDAISHIJIESHIDAKEJICHENGJIUZHIYI。

光学显微镜

TASHIZAI1590NIANYOUHELANDEZHANSENFUZISUOSHOUCHUANG。GUANGXUEXIANWEIJINGKEBAWUTIFANGDA1600BEI,FENBIANDE*XIAOJIXIANDA0.1WEIMI。GUANGXUEXIANWEIJINGDEZHONGLEIHENDUO,CHUYIBANDEWAI,ZHUYAOYOUANSHIYEXIANWEIJINGYIZHONGJUYOUANSHIYEJUGUANGJING,CONGERSHIZHAOMINGDEGUANGSHUBUCONGZHONGYANGBUFENSHERU,ERCONGSIZHOUSHEXIANGBIAOBENDEXIANWEIJING.YINGGUANGXIANWEIJINGYIZIWAIXIANWEIGUANGYUAN,SHIBEIZHAOSHEDEWUTIFACHUYINGGUANGDEXIANWEIJING。JIEGOUWEI:MUJING,JINGTONG,ZHUANHUANQI,WUJING,ZAIWUTAI,TONGGUANGKONG,ZHEGUANGQI,YAPIANJIA,FANGUANGJING,JINGZUO,CUZHUNJIAOLUOXUAN,XIZHUNJIAOLUOXUAN,JINGBEI,JINGZHU。

折叠暗视野显微镜

ANSHIYEXIANWEIJINGYOUYUBUJIANGTOUMINGGUANGSHERUZHIJIEGUANCHAXITONG,WUWUTISHI,SHIYEANHEI,BUKENENGGUANCHADAORENHEWUTI,DANGYOUWUTISHI,YIWUTIYANSHEHUIDEGUANGYUSANSHEGUANGDENGZAIANDEBEIJINGZHONGMINGLIANGKEJIAN。ZAIANSHIYEGUANCHAWUTI,ZHAOMINGGUANGDABUFENBEIZHEHUI,YOUYUWUTI(BIAOBEN)SUOZAIDEWEIZHIJIEGOU,HOUDUBUTONG,GUANGDESANSHEXING,ZHEGUANGDENGDOUYOUHENDADEBIANHUA。

折叠相位差显微镜

XIANGWEICHAXIANWEIJINGDEJIEGOU: XIANGWEICHAXIANWEIJING,SHIYINGYONGXIANGWEICHAFADEXIANWEIJING。YINCI,BITONGCHANGDEXIANWEIJINGYAOZENGJIAXIALIEFUJIAN:

(1) ZHUANGYOUXIANGWEIBAN(XIANGWEIHUANXINGBAN)DEWUJING,XIANGWEICHAWUJING。

(2) FUYOUXIANGWEIHUAN(HUANXINGFENGBAN)DEJUGUANGJING,XIANGWEICHAJUGUANGJING。

(3) DANSELVGUANGJING-(LV)。

GEZHONGYUANJIANDEXINGNENGSHUOMING

(1) XIANGWEIBANSHIZHIJIEGUANGDEXIANGWEIYIDONG 90°,BINGQIEXISHOUJIANRUOGUANGDEQIANGDU,ZAIWUJINGHOUJIAOPINGMIANDESHIDANGWEIZHIZHUANGZHIXIANGWEIBAN,XIANGWEIBANBIXUQUEBAOLIANGDU,WEISHIYANSHEGUANGDEYINGXIANGSHAOYIXIE,XIANGWEIBANZUOCHENGHUANXINGZHUANG。

(2) XIANGWEIHUAN(HUANZHUANGGUANGQUAN)SHIGENJUMEIZHONGWUJINGDEBEILV,ERYOUDAXIAOBUTONG,KEYONGZHUANPANQIGENGHUAN。

(3) DANSELVGUANGJINGXIYONGZHONGXINBOZHANG546nm(HAOWEIMI)DELVSELVGUANGJING。TONGCHANGSHIYONGDANSELVGUANGJINGRUGUANCHA。XIANGWEIBANYONGTEDINGDEBOZHANG,YIDONG90°KANZHIJIEGUANGDEXIANGWEI。DANGXUYAOTEDINGBOZHANGSHI,BIXUXUANZESHIDANGDELVGUANGJING,LVGUANGJINGCHARUHOUDUIBIDUJIUTIGAO。CIWAI,XIANGWEIHUANXINGFENGDEZHONGXIN,BIXUDIAOZHENGDAOZHENGQUEFANGWEIHOUFANGNENGCAOZUO,DUIZHONGWANGYUANJINGJIUSHIQIZHEIGEZUOYONGBUJIAN

折叠荧光显微镜

ZAIYINGGUANGXIANWEIJINGSHANG,BIXUZAIBIAOBENDEZHAOMINGGUANGZHONG,XUANZECHUTEDINGBOZHANGDEJIFAGUANG,YICHANSHENGYINGGUANG,RANHOUBIXUZAIJIFAGUANGHEYINGGUANGHUNHEDEGUANGXIANZHONG,DANBAYINGGUANGFENLICHULAIYIGONGGUANCHA。YINCI,ZAIXUANZETEDINGBOZHANGZHONG,LVGUANGJINGXITONG,CHENGWEIJIQIZHONGYAODEJIAOSE。

YINGGUANGXIANWEIJINGYUANLI:

(A) GUANGYUAN:GUANGYUANFUSHECHUGEZHONGBOZHANGDEGUANG(YIZIWAIZHIHONGWAI)。

(B) JILILVGUANGYUAN:TOUGUONENGSHIBIAOBENCHANSHENGYINGGUANGDETEDINGBOZHANGDEGUANG,TONGSHIZUDANGDUIJIFAYINGGUANGWUYONGDEGUANG。

(C) YINGGUANGBIAOBEN:YIBANYONGYINGGUANGSESURANSE。

(D) ZUDANGLVGUANGJING:ZUDANGDIAOMEIYOUBEIBIAOBENXISHOUDEJIFAGUANGYOUXUANZEDITOUSHEYINGGUANG,ZAIYINGGUANGZHONGYEYOUBUFENBOZHANGBEIXUANZETOUGUO。 YIZIWAIXIANWEIGUANGYUAN,SHIBEIZHAOSHEDEWUTIFACHUYINGGUANGDEXIANWEIJING。DIANZIXIANWEIJINGSHIZAI1931NIANZAIDEGUOBOLINYOUKENUOERHEHALUOSIKASHOUXIANZHUANGPEIWANCHENGDE。ZHEIZHONGXIANWEIJINGYONGGAOSUDIANZISHUDAITIGUANGSHU。YOUYUDIANZILIUDEBOZHANGBIGUANGBODUANDEDUO,SUOYIDIANZIXIANWEIJINGDEFANGDABEISHUKEDA80WANBEI,FENBIANDE*XIAOJIXIANDA0.2NAMI。1963NIANKAISHISHIYONGDESAOMIAODIANZIXIANWEIJINGGENGKESHIRENKANDAOWUTIBIAOMIANDEWEIXIAOJIEGOU。

XIANWEIJINGBEIYONGLAIFANGDAWEIXIAOWUTIDETUXIANG。YIBANYINGYONGYUDUISHENGWU、YIYAO、WEIGUANLIZIDENGGUANCE。

(1)LIYONGWEIWEIDONGZAIWUTAIZHIYIDONG,PEIHEQUANMUJINGZHISHIZIZUOBIAOXIAN,ZUOZHANGDULIANGCE。

(2)LIYONGXUANZHUANZAIWUTAIYUMUJINGXIADUANZHIYOUBIAOWEIFENJIAODUPAN,PEIHEQUANMUJINGZHISHIZIZUOBIAOXIAN,ZUOJIAODULIANGCE,LINGDAICEJIAOYIDUANDUIZHUNSHIZIXIANYUZHIZHONGHE,RANHOUZAIRANGLINGYIDUANYEZHONGHE。

(3)LIYONGBIAOZHUNJIANCELUOWENDEJIEJU、JIEJING、WAIJING、YAJIAOJIYAXINGDENGCHICUNHUOWAIXING。

(4)JIANYANJINXIANGBIAOMIANDEJINGLIZHUANGKUANG。

(5)JIANYANGONGJIANJIAGONGBIAOMIANDEQINGKUANG。

(6)JIANCEWEIXIAOGONGJIANDECHICUNHUOLUNKUOSHIFOUYUBIAOZHUNPIANXIANGFU。

折叠超声波显微镜

CHAOSHENGBOSAOMIAOXIANWEIJINGDETEDIANZAIYUNENGGOUJINGQUEDEFANYINGCHUSHENGBOHEWEIXIAOYANGPINDEDANXINGJIEZHIZHIJIANDEXIANGHUZUOYONG,BINGDUICONGYANGPINNEIBUFANKUIHUILAIDEXINHAOJINXINGFENXI!TUXIANGSHANG(C-Scan)DEMEIYIGEXIANGSUDUIYINGZHECONGYANGPINNEIMOUYITEDINGSHENDUDEYIGEERWEIKONGJIANZUOBIAODIANSHANGDEXINHAOFANKUI,JUYOULIANGHAOJUJIAOGONGNENGDEZ.ACHUANGANQITONGSHINENGGOUFASHEHEJIESHOUSHENGBOXINHAO。YIFUWANZHENGDETUXIANGJIUSHIZHEIYANGZHUDIANZHUXINGDUIYANGPINSAOMIAOERCHENGDE。FANSHEHUILAIDECHAOSHENGBOBEIFUJIALEYIGEZHENGDEHUOFUDEZHENFU,ZHEIYANGJIUKEYIYONGXINHAOCHUANSHUDESHIJIANFANYINGYANGPINDESHENDU。YONGHUPINGMUSHANGDESHUZIBOXINGZHANSHICHUJIESHOUDAODEFANKUIXINXI(A-Scan)。SHEZHIXIANGYINGDEMENDIANLU,YONGZHEIZHONGDINGLIANGDESHIJIANCHACELIANG(FANKUISHIJIANXIANSHI),JIUKEYIXUANZENINSUOYAOGUANCHADEYANGPINSHENDU。

折叠共聚焦显微镜

CONGYIGEDIANGUANGYUANFASHEDETANCEGUANGTONGGUOTOUJINGJUJIAODAOBEIGUANCEWUTISHANG,RUGUOWUTIQIAZAIJIAODIANSHANG,NEIMEFANSHEGUANGTONGGUOYUANTOUJINGYINGDANGHUIJUHUIDAOGUANGYUAN,ZHEIJIUSHISUOWEIDEGONGJUJIAO,JIANCHENGGONGJIAO。JIGUANGSAOMIAOGONGJUJIAOXIANWEIJING[Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope(CLSMHUOLSCM)]ZAIFANSHEGUANGDEGUANGLUSHANGJIASHANGLEYIKUAIBANFANBANTOUJING(dichroic mirror),JIANGYIJINGTONGGUOTOUJINGDEFANSHEGUANGZHEXIANGQITAFANGXIANG,ZAIQIJIAODIANSHANGYOUYIGEDAIYOUZHENKONG(Pinhole),XIAOKONGJIUWEIYUJIAODIANCHU,DANGBANHOUMIANSHIYIGE GUANGDIANBEIZENGGUAN(photomultiplier tube,PMT)。KEYIXIANGXIANG,TANCEGUANGJIAODIANQIANHOUDEFANSHEGUANGTONGGUOZHEIYITAOGONGJIAOXITONG,BIBUNENGJUJIAODAOXIAOKONGSHANG,HUIBEIDANGBANDANGZHU。YUSHIGUANGDUJICELIANGDEJIUSHIJIAODIANCHUDEFANSHEGUANGQIANGDU。QIYIYISHI:TONGGUOYIDONGTOUJINGXITONGKEYIDUIYIGEBANTOUMINGDEWUTIJINXINGSANWEISAOMIAO。

折叠金相显微镜

JINXIANGXIANWEIJINGZHUYAOYONGYUJIANDINGHEFENXIJINSHUNEIBUJIEGOUZUZHI,TASHIJINSHUXUEYANJIUJINXIANGDEZHONGYAOYIQI,SHIGONGYEBUMENJIANDINGCHANPINZHILIANGDEGUANJIANSHEBEI,GAIYIQIPEIYONGSHEXIANGZHUANGZHI,KESHEQUJINXIANGTUPU,BINGDUITUPUJINXINGCELIANGFENXI,DUITUXIANGJINXINGBIANJI、SHUCHU、CUNCHU、GUANLIDENGGONGNENG。 GUONEICHANGJIAJIAODUO,LISHIYOUJIU。

电子显微镜

XIANZAIDIANZIXIANWEIJING*DAFANGDABEILVCHAOGUO1500WANBEI,

1931NIAN,DEGUODEM.NUOERHEE.LUSIKA,YONGLENGYINJIFANGDIANDIANZIYUANHESANGEDIANZITOUJINGGAIZHUANGLEYITAIGAOYASHIBOQI,BINGHUODELEFANGDASHIJIBEIDETUXIANG,FAMINGDESHITOUSHEDIANJING,ZHENGSHILEDIANZIXIANWEIJINGFANGDACHENGXIANGDEKENENGXING。1932NIAN,JINGGUOLUSIKADEGAIJIN,DIANZIXIANWEIJINGDEFENBIANNENGLIDADAOLE50NAMI,YUEWEIDANGSHIGUANGXUEXIANWEIJINGFENBIANBENLINGDESHIBEI,TUPOLEGUANGXUEXIANWEIJINGFENBIANJIXIAN,YUSHIDIANZIXIANWEIJINGKAISHISHOUDAORENMENDEZHONGSHI。

DAOLEERSHISHIJI40NIANDAI,MEIGUODEXIERYONGXIAOXIANGSANQIBUCHANGDIANZITOUJINGDEXUANZHUANBUDUICHENGXING,SHIDIANZIXIANWEIJINGDEFENBIANBENLINGYOULEXINDETUPO,ZHUBUDADAOLEXIANDAISHUIPING。ZAIZHONGGUO,1958NIANYANZHICHENGGONGTOUSHESHIDIANZIXIANWEIJING,QIFENBIANBENLINGWEI3NAMI,1979NIANYOUZHICHENGFENBIANBENLINGWEI0.3NAMIDEDAXINGDIANZIXIANWEIJING。

DIANZIXIANWEIJINGDEFENBIANBENLINGSUIYIYUANSHENGYUGUANGXUEXIANWEIJING,DANDIANZIXIANWEIJINGYINXUZAIZHENKONGTIAOJIANXIAGONGZUO,SUOYIHENNANGUANCHAHUODESHENGWU,ERQIEDIANZISHUDEZHAOSHEYEHUISHISHENGWUYANGPINSHOUDAOFUZHAOSUNSHANG。QITADEWENTI,RUDIANZIQIANGLIANGDUHEDIANZITOUJINGZHILIANGDETIGAODENGWENTIYEYOUDAIJIXUYANJIU。

场发射扫描电子显微镜

ZHUYAOYONGTU: GAIYIQIJUYOUCHAOGAOFENBIANLV,NENGZUOGEZHONGGUTAIYANGPINBIAOMIANXINGMAODEERCIDIANZIXIANG、FANSHEDIANZIXIANGGUANCHAJITUXIANGCHULI。 JUYOUGAOXINGNENGxSHEXIANNENGPUYI,NENGTONGSHIJINXINGYANGPINBIAOCENGDEWEIQUDIANXIANMIANYUANSUDEDINGXING、BANDINGLIANGJIDINGLIANGFENXI,JUYOUXINGMAO、HUAXUEZUFENZONGHEFENXINENGLI。

YIQILEIBIE: 03040702 /YIQIYIBIAO/GUANGXUEYIQI /DIANZIGUANGXUEJILIZIGUANGXUEYIQI

ZHIBIAOXINXI: ERCIDIANZIXIANGFENBIANLV:1.5nm JIASUDIANYA:0~30kV FANGDABEISHU:10-50WANBEILIANXUKEDIAOGONGZUOJULI:5~35mmLIANXUKEDIAOQINGXIE:-5°~45° xSHEXIANNENGPUYI: FENBIANLV:133eV FENXIFANWEI:B-U

FUJIANXINXI: DUJINDUTANYI ISISTUXIANGCHULIXITONGBEISANSHETANTOU

CHANGFASHESAOMIAODIANJING,YOUYUFENBIANLVGAO,WEINAMICAILIAODEYANJIUTIGONGLEKEKAODESHIYANSHOUDUAN。LINGWAI,DUIBANDAOTICAILIAOHEJUEYUANTI,DOUNENGDEDAOMANYIDETUXIANG,DUICHAODAOBOMO,CIXINGCAILIAO,FENZISHUWAIYANSHENGZHANGDEBOMOCAILIAO,BANDAOTICAILIAOJINXINGLEXINGMAOGUANCHA,BINGDUIDUOZHONGCAILIAOJINXINGLEWEIQUCHENGFENFENXI,JUNNENGDEDAOMANYIDEJIEGUO。

使用方法

显微镜的使用

LIYONGZIRANGUANGYUANJINGJIANSHI,*HAOYONGCHAOBEIDEGUANGYUAN,BUYICAIYONGZHISHEYANGGUANG;LIYONGRENGONGGUANGYUANSHI,YIYONGRIGUANGDENGDEGUANGYUAN。

JINGJIANSHISHENTIYAOZHENGDUISHIXITAI,CAIQUDUANZHENGDEZITAI,LIANGYANZIRANZHANGKAI,ZUOYANGUANCHABIAOBEN,YOUYANGUANCHAJILUJIHUITU,TONGSHIZUOSHOUDIAOJIEJIAOJU,SHIWUXIANGQINGXIBINGYIDONGBIAOBENSHIYE。YOUSHOUJILU、HUITU。

JINGJIANSHIZAIWUTAIBUKEQINGXIE,YINWEIDANGZAIWUTAIQINGXIESHI,YETIHUOYOUYILIUCHU,JISUNHUAILEBIAOBEN,YOUWURANZAIWUTAI,YEYINGXIANGJIANCHAJIEGUO。

JINGJIANSHIYINGJIANGBIAOBENANYIDINGFANGXIANGYIDONGSHIYE,ZHIZHIZHENGGEBIAOBENGUANCHAWANBI,YIBIANBULOUJIAN,BUZHONGFU。

XIANWEIJINGDEZHONGGUANGWEIDUIGUANG,JIEWUJINGDEZHUANHUANJIGUANGXIANDEDIAOJIE。GUANCHAJISHENGCHONGBIAOBENSHI,GUANGXIANDIAOJIESHENWEIZHONGYAO。YINWEISUOGUANCHADEBIAOBENRUCHONGLUAN、BAONANGDENG,JUNWEIZIRANGUANGZHUANGTAIDEWUTI,YOUDAYOUXIAO,SEZEYOUSHENYOUQIAN,YOUDEWUSETOUMING,ERDIBEI、GAOBEIJIEWUJINGZHUANHUANJIAODUO,GUXUSUIZHEJINGJIANSHIDUIBUTONGBIAOBENHEYAOQIU,XUYAOSUISHIDIAOJIEJIAOJUHEGUANGXIAN,ZHEIYANGCAINENGSHIGUANCHADEWUXIANGQINGXI。ZAIYIBANQINGKUANGXIA,RANSEBIAOBENGUANGXIANYIQIANG,WUSEHUOWEIRANSEBIAOBENGUANGXIANYIRUO;DIBEIJINGGUANCHAGUANGXIANYIRUO,GAOBEIJINGGUANCHAGUANGXIANYIQIANG。

1. 对光:

(1)JIANGDIBEIJINGZHUANZHIJINGTONGXIAFANGYUJINGTONGCHENGYIZHIXIAN。

(2)BODONGFANGUANGJING,DIAOJIEZHISHIYE*LIANGWUYINYING。FANGUANGJINGYOUPING、AOLIANGMIAN,GUANGYUANQIANGSHIYONGPINGMIAN,JIAOANSHIYONGAOMIAN,XUYAOQIANGGUANGSHI,JIANGJUGUANGQITIGAO,GUANGQUANFANGDA;XUYAORUOGUANGSHI,JIANGJUGUANGQIJIANGDI,HUOGUANGQUANSHIDANGSUOXIAO。

(3)JIANGDAIGUANCHADEBIAOBENZHIZAIWUTAISHANG,ZHUANDONGCUDIAOJIEQISHIJINGTONGXIAJIANGZHIJIEWUJINGJIEJINBIAOBEN。YUZHUANDONGCUDIAOJIEQIDETONGSHI,XUFUSHENZAIJINGPANGZIXIGUANCHAJIEWUJINGYUBIAOBENZHIJIANDEJULI。

(4)ZUOYANYUJIEMUJINGGUANCHA,TONGSHIZUOSHOUZHUANDONGCUDIAOJIE,SHIJINGTONGXUXUSHANGSHENGYIDIAOJIEJIAOJU,SHISHIYENEIDEWUXIANGKANDAOSHANGSHIJITING,ZAIDIAOWEIDIAOJIEQI,ZHIBIAOBENQINGXIWEIZHI。

2. 接物镜的使用及光线的调节:

XIANWEIJINGYIBANJUYOUSANGEJIEWUJING,JIDIBEI、GAOBEIJIYOUJING,GUDINGYUJIEWUJINGZHUANHUANPANKONGZHONG。GUANCHABIAOBENSHI,XIANSHIYONGDIBEIJIEWUJING,CISHI,SHIYEJIAODA,BIAOBENJIAOYICHACHU,DANFANGDABEISHUJIAOXIAO(YIBANFANGDA100BEI),JIAOXIAODEWUTIBUYIGUANCHAQIJIEGOU。GAOBEIJIEWUJINGFANGDADEBEISHUJIAODA(YIBANFANGDA400BEI),NENGGUANCHAWEIXIAODEWUTIHUOJIEGOU。

JISHENGCHONGDERUCHONGLUAN,WEISIYOU,YUANCHONGDEZIYANGTIJIBAONANG,KUNCHONGDEYOUCHONG,JUNSHIYONGDI、GAOBEIJING。ZUZHIXIBAONEIDEYUANCHONG,ZESHIYONGYOUJING。SHIYONGDI、GAOBEIJINGGUANCHA,RUZAIDIBEIJINGXIABUNENGZHUNQUEJIANDINGSUOJIANDEWUTIHUOQINEIBUGOUZAOSHI,ZEZHUANGAOBEIJINGGUANCHA。SHIYONGYOUJINGGUANCHA,YIBANJIAYIDIYOUHOUZHIJIEJIANGYOUJINGTOUJINRUYOUDIZHONGJINXINGJINGJIANGUANCHA。

3. 低倍、高倍、油镜头的识别:

(1)BIAOMINGFANGDABEISHU10×,40×,100×,HUO10/0.25,40/0.65,100/1.25。

(2)DIBEIJING*DUAN,GAOBEIJINGJIAOZHANG,YOUJING*ZHANG。

(3)JINGTOUQIANMIANDEJINGKONGDIBEIJING*DA,GAOBEIJINGJIAODA,YOUJING*XIAO。

(4)YOUJINGTOUSHANGCHANGKEYOUHEISEHUANQUAN,HUO"YOU"ZI。

4. 低倍镜换高倍镜的使用方法:

(1)GUANGXIANDUIHAOHOU,YIDONGTUIJINQIXUNZHAOXUYAOGUANCHADEBIAOBEN。

(2)RUBIAOBENDETIJIJIAODA,BUNENGQINGCHUCHAJIANQIGOUZAOYINERBUNENGQUERENSHI,ZEJIANGBIAOBENYIZHISHIYEZHONGYANG,ZAIXUANZHUANGAOBEIJIEWUJINGYUJINGTONGXIAFANG。

(3)XUANZHUANWEIDIAOJIEQIZHIWUXIANGQINGXIWEIZHI。

(4)DIAOJIEJUGUANGQIJIGUANGQUAN,SHISHIYENEIDEWUXIANGDADAO*QINGXIDECHENGDU。

5. 油镜的使用方法:

(1)YUANLI:SHIYONGYOUJINGGUANCHASHI,XUJIAXIANGBOYOU,YINWEIYOUJINGXUYAOJINRUJINGTOUDEGUANGXIANDUO,DANYOUJINGDETOUQIKONG*XIAO,ZHEIYANGJINRUDEGUANGXIANJIUSHAO,WUTIBUYIKANQINGCHU。TONGSHIYOUYINZIBOPIANTOUGUODEGUANGXIAN,YOUYUJIEZHI(BOPIAN-KONGQI-JIEWUJING)MIDU(BOPIAN:n=1.52,KONGQI:n=1.0)BUTONGERFASHENGLEZHESHESANGUANG,YINCISHERUJINGTOUDEGUANGXIANJIUGENGSHAO,WUTIGENGKANBUQINGCHU。YUSHICAIYONGYIZHONGHEBOPIANZHEGUANGLVXIANGJIEJINDEJIEZHIRUXIANGBOYOU,JIAYUBIAOBENYUBOPIANZHIJIAN,SHIGUANGXIANBUTONGGUOKONGQI,ZHEIYANGSHERUJINGTOUDEGUANGXIANJIUJIAODUO,WUXIANGJIUKANDEQINGCHU。

(2)YOUJINGDESHIYONG:

a.JIANGGUANGXIANDIAOZHI*QIANGCHENGDU(JUGUANGQITIGAO,GUANGQUANQUANBUKAIFANG)。

b.ZHUANDONGCUDIAOJIEQISHIJINGTONGSHANGSHENG,DIXIANGBOYOU1XIAODI(BUYAOGUODUO,BUYAOTUKAI)YUJIEWUJINGZHENGXIAFANGBIAOBENSHANG。

c.ZHUANDONGJIEWUJINGZHUANHUANPAN,SHIYOUJINGTOUYUJINGTONGXIAFANG。

d.FUSHENJINGPANGCEMIANZAIROUYANDEGUANCHAXIA,ZHUANDONGCUDIAOJIEQISHIYOUJINGTOUXUXUXIAJIANGJINRUXIANGBOYOUNEI,QINGQINGJIECHUBOPIANWEIZHI。

e.MANMANZHUANDONGCUDIAOJIEQI,SHIYOUJINGTOUXUXUSHANGSHENGZHIJIANDAOBIAOBENDEWUXIANGWEIZHI。

f.ZHUANDONGWEIDIAOJIEQI,SHISHIYEWUXIANGDADAO*QINGXIDECHENGDU。

g.ZUOSHOUXUXUYIDONGTUIJINQI,BINGZHUANDONGWEIDIAOJIEQIYIGUANCHABIAOBEN。

h.BIAOBENGUANCHAWANBIHOU,ZHUANDONGCUDIAOJIEQIJIANGJINGTONGSHENGQI,QUXIABIAOBENBOPIAN。LIJIYONGCAJINGZHIJIANGJINGTOUSHANGDEXIANGBOYOUCAJING。

6. 注意事项:

(1)SHIYONGXIANWEIJINGZHIQIAN,YINGSHUXIXIANWEIJINGDEGEBUMINGCHENGJISHIYONGFANGFA,TEBIEYINGZHANGWOSHIBIESANZHONGJIEWUJINGZHITEZHENG。

(2)JISHENGCHONGXUESHIXIZHONGSUOGUANCHADEBIAOBEN,DADUOSHUWEIWUSEHEYANSEJIAOQIAN,YINCIBIXUZHUYIGUANGXIANDEDIAOJIE。

(3)XINXIANBIAOBENGUANCHASHI,XUJIAGAIBOPIAN,YIMIANBIAOBENYINZHENGFAERGANZAOBIANXINGHUOWURANQINSHIJIEWUJING,TONGSHIKESHIBIAOBENBIAOMIANYUNPING,GUANGXIANDEYIJIZHONG,YOULIYUGUANCHA。

(SAN) XIANWEIJINGDEBAOYANG

TU3 JIAYONGGAIBOPIANHOU,BIAOBENBIAOMIANYUNPING,GUANGXIANDEYIJIZHONG,BIANYUJIANCHASHIYITU

1.XIANWEIJINGZAICONGMUXIANGZHONGQUCHUHUOZHUANGXIANGSHI,YOUSHOUJINWOJINGBEI,ZUOSHOUWENTUOJINGZUO,QINGQINGQUCHU。BUYAOZHIYONGYIZHISHOUTIQU,YIFANGXIANWEIJINGZHUILUO,RANHOUQINGQINGFANGZAISHIXITAISHANGHUOZHUANG RUMUXIANGNEI。

2.XIANWEIJINGFANGDAOSHIXITAISHANGSHI,XIANFANGJINGZUODEYIDUAN,ZAIJIANGJINGZUOQUANBUFANGWEN,QIEBUKESHIJINGZUOQUANMIANTONGSHIYUTAIMIANJIECHU,ZHEIYANGZHENDONGGUODA,TOUJINGHEWEIDIAOJIEQIDEZHUANGZHIYISUNHUAI。

3.XIANWEIJINGXUJINGCHANGBAOCHIQINGJIE,WUSHIYOUWUHEHUICHENFUZHE。RUTOUJINGBUFENBUJIESHI,YONGCAJINGZHIQINGCA,RUYOUYOUWU,XIANJIANGCAJINGZHIZHANSHAOXUERJIABENSHIQU。

4.XIANWEIJINGBUNENGZAIYANGGUANGXIABAOSHAIHESHIYONG。

5.JIEMUJINGHEJIEWUJINGBUYAOSUIBIANCHOUCHUHEXIEXIABIXUCHOUQUJIEMUJINGSHI,XUJIANGJINGTONGSHANGKOUJINGYONGBUZHEGAI,BIMIANHUICHENLUORUJINGTONGNEI。GENGHUANJIEWUJINGSHI,XIEXIAHOUYINGDAOZHIZAIQINGJIEDETAIMIANXIA,BINGSUIJIZHUANGRUMUXIANGDEZHIFANGJIEWUJINGDEGUANNEI。

6.XIANWEIJINGYONGWANHOU,QUXIABIAOBENPIAN,JINGJUGUANGQIJIANGXIA,ZAIJIANGWUJINGZHUANCHENG"BA"ZIXING,ZHUANDONGCUDIAOJIEQISHIJINGTONGXIAJIANG,YIMIANJIEWUJINGYUJUGUANGQIXIANGPENG。

7.XIANWEIJINGYINGFANGZAIGANZAODEDIFANG,YIFANGSHENGMEI。

二、体视显微镜的使用

TISHIXIANWEIJINGNENGHUODELITIGANJUE,QIYUANLISHIYOUYUTONGGUOLIANGGEJIEMUJINGDUIWUTICONGBUTONGDEFANGXIANGZAIRENYANDEWANGMOSHANGXINGCHENGDEXIANGERCHANSHENGDE。BENXIANWEIJINGJUYOUQINGXIECHENG45°DESHUANGTONG,TONGGUOSHUANGTONGKEYIGUANCHADAOKUANGUANGSHIYEZHONGZHENGLIDEJUYOULITIGANDEWUXIANG。QIZHONGYOUCEJIEMUJINGTONGSHANGYOUSHIDUDIAOJIEQUANDEWEIZHI,RUGUANCHAZHESHUANGYANSHIDUJUYOUCHAYI,KEYIXIANDIAOJIEXIANWEIJINGSHIZUOYANCHENGXIANGQINGXI,RANHOUXUANZHUANYOUCESHIDUDIAOJIEQUANZHIYOUYANCHENGXIANGQINGXI。SHUANGTONGKEYIZAIYIDINGJIAODUNEIXIANGDUIDIZHUANDONGYISHIYINGGONGZUOZHELIANGYANJIANJULI。BENXIANWEIJINGDEGONGZUOJULIWEI100mm,ZAIFANGXINGJINGSHENLIANGCEYOUSHOULUNKEXUANZHUAN,LIYONGTADEZHUANDONGKEZAIBUBIANGENGGONGZUOJULIQINGKUANGXIAGENGHUANXIANWEIJINGFANGDABEISHU。XIANWEIJINGZONGFANGDABEISHUDEDUSHU,ZAISHIYONG25×JIEMUJINGSHI,YIYOUCESHUPANSHANGSHUZIWEIZHUN,ERSHIYONG6.3×JIEMUJINGSHI,ZEYIZUOCESHUPANSHANGDESHUZIWEIZHUN。

三、其它仪器器材的使用与保养

CHUXIANWEIJING、TISHIXIANWEIJINGYIWAI,JISHENGCHONGXUESHIXIKEYONGDEQICAI、YIQISHANGYOUXUDUO,ZAICIWOMENBUYIYIZHUISHU,MEICISHIXIKEFUDAOJIAOSHIJIANGXIANGWOMENJIESHAO,ZHEILIJINJIANGZHEIXIEYIQI、QICAIFENLEIBIELVEZUOYIXIESHIYONGYUANLIDEJIESHAO。

(YI)BOLIYIQI、QICAI:SHIYONGSHIQINGNAQINGFANG,FANGZHIPOSUI,YONGBIYINGQINGXIGANJING、LIANGGAN、HONGGANYIFANGSHENGMEI。

(ER)JINSHUYIQI、QICAI:WUJIECHUHUOSHAOJIECHUSUANXING、JIANXINGWUPIN,YONGBIYINGXISHUA、CAJING、LIANGGAN、HONGGANYIFANGFUSHISHENGXIU

低倍镜的使用方法

(1)QUJINGHEFANGZHI:XIANWEIJINGPINGSHICUNFANGZAIJUHUOXIANGZHONG,YONGSHICONGJUZHONGQUCHU,YOUSHOUJINWOJINGBEI,ZUOYISHOUTUOZHUJINGZUO,JIANGXIANWEIJINGFANGZAIZIJIZUOJIANQIANFANGDESHIYANTAISHANG,JINGZUOHOUDUANJUZHUOBIAN7LIMIWEIYI,BIANYUCAOZUO。

(2)DUIGUANG:YONGMUZHIHEZHONGZHIYIDONGXUANZHUANQI(QIEJISHOUCHIWUJINGYIDONG),SHIDIBEIJINGDUIZHUNJINGTAIDETONGGUANGKONG(DANGZHUANDONGTINGDAOPENGKOUSHENGSHI,SHUOMINGWUJINGGUANGZHOUYIDUIZHUNJINGTONGZHONGXIN)。DIAOJIEWEIJIAODAGUANGQUANBINGJIANGFANGUANGJINGZHUANXIANGGUANGYUAN,ZUOYANZAIMUJINGSHANGGUANCHA(YOUYANZHENGKAI),TONGSHIDIAOJIEFANGUANGJINGPIANZHUANJIAODU,ZHIDAOSHIYENEICHUXIANMINGLIANGGUANGBANWEIZHI。

(3)FANGZHIBOPIANBIAOBEN:QUYIBOPIANBIAOBENFANGZAIJINGTAISHANG,YIDINGSHIYOUGAIBOPIANDEYIMIANCHAOSHANG,QIEBUKEFANGFAN,YONGYAPIANJIAJIAZHU,RANHOUYIDONGBOPIAN,JIANGSUOYAOGUANCHADEBUWEIDIAODAOSHIYEFANWEINEI。

(4)DIAOJIEJIAOJU:YIZUOSHOUANNISHIZHENFANGXIANGZHUANDONGCUZHUNJIAOLUOXUAN,SHIJINGTONGHUANMANDIXIAJIANGZHIWUJINGJUBIAOBENPIANYUE5HAOMICHU,YINGZHUYIZAIXIAJIANGJINGTONGSHI,QIEWUZAIMUJINGSHANGGUANCHA。YIDINGYAOCONGYOUCEKANZHEJINGTONGXIAJIANG,YIMIANXIAJIANGGUODUO,ZAOCHENGJINGTOUHUOBIAOBENPIANDESUNHUAI。RANHOU,LIANGYANTONGSHIZHENGKAI,YONGZUOYANZAIMUJINGSHANGGUANCHA,ZUOSHOUSHUNSHIZHENFANGXIANGHUANMANZHUANDONGXIZHUNJIAOLUOXUAN,SHIJINGTONGHUANMANXIAJIANG,ZHIDAOSHIYEZHONGCHUXIANQINGXIDEWUXIANGWEIZHI。

RUGUOWUXIANGBUZAISHIYEZHONGXIN,KEYIDONGBOPIAN,JIANGSUOYAOGUANCHADEBUWEIDIAODAOSHIYEFANWEINEI。(ZHUYIYIDONGBOPIANDEFANGXIANGYUSHIYEWUXIANGYIDONGDEFANGXIANGSHIXIANGFANDE)。RUGUOSHIYENEIDELIANGDUBUHESHI,KETONGGUODIAOZHENGGUANGQUANDEDAXIAOLAIDIAOJIE,RUGUOZAIDIAOJIEJIAOJUSHI,JINGTAIXIAJIANGYICHAOGUOGONGZUOJULI(>5.40mm)ERWEIJIANDAOWUXIANG,SHUOMINGCICICAOZUOSHIBAI,ZEYINGZHONGXINCAOZUO,QIEBUKEXINJIERMANGMUDISHANGSHENGJINGTAI。

高倍镜的使用方法

(1)XUANHAOMUBIAO:YIDINGYAOXIANZAIDIBEIJINGXIABAXUJINYIBUGUANCHADEBUWEIDIAODAOZHONGXIN,TONGSHIBAWUXIANGDIAOJIEDAO*QINGXIDECHENGDU,CAINENGJINXINGGAOBEIJINGDEGUANCHA。

(2)ZHUANDONGZHUANHUANQI,DIAOHUANSHANGGAOBEIJINGTOU,ZHUANHUANGAOBEIJINGSHIZHUANDONGSUDUYAOMAN,BINGCONGCEMIANJINXINGGUANCHA(FANGZHIGAOBEIJINGTOUPENGZHUANGBOPIAN),RUGAOBEIJINGTOUPENGDAOBOPIAN,SHUOMINGDIBEIJINGDEJIAOJUMEIYOUDIAOHAO,YINGZHONGXINCAOZUO。

(3)DIAOJIEJIAOJU:ZHUANHUANHAOGAOBEIJINGHOU,YONGZUOYANZAIMUJINGSHANGGUANCHA,CISHIYIBANNENGJIANDAOYIGEBUTAIQINGCHUDEWUXIANG,KEJIANGXIDIAOJIEQIDELUOXUANNISHIZHENYIDONGYUE0.5-1QUAN,JIKEHUODEQINGXIDEWUXIANG(QIEWUYONGCUDIAOJIEQI!)

RUGUOSHIYEDELIANGDUBUHESHI,KEYONGJIGUANGQIHEGUANGQUANJIAYIDIAOJIE,RUGUOXUYAOGENGHUANBOPIANBIAOBENSHI,BIXUSHUNSHIZHEN(QIEWUZHUANCUOFANGXIANG)ZHUANDONGCUDIAOJIEQISHIJINGTAIXIAJIANG,FANGKEQUXIABOPIANBIAOBEN。

想让像变大就要使物镜靠近物体,目镜远离物镜一些,像变小则反之。